Verily, there has come to you a Messenger (Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him) from amongst yourselves, it grieves Him that You should receive any injury or difficulty. He is anxious over you (for your well-being), for the believers (He is) the most kind and compassionate. (Qur’an 9: 128)
Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa (PBUH&HF)
Name - Muhammad
Title- Al-Mustafa, Al-Amin, Ar-Rasool
Kunyat - Abul Qasim
Born- Friday, the 17th of Rabi-ul Awwal
Fathers Name- Abdullah Ibn Abdul Muttalib
Mothers Name- Amina bint-e-Wahab
Demisedat the age of 63 years on Monday, 28th Safar 11 AH
Buried- in his house adjoining the mosque at Medina
The Prophet’s Attributes
The life of the Prophet Muhammad (S) is a source of shining guidance and full of powerful lessons for Muslims in different places and times. Prophet Muhammad (S) exemplifies the strong and profound relationship that each human being ought to have with his Creator, his fellow human beings, and the world around him.
Throughout the twenty-three years of his mission, Prophet Muhammad (S) sought the way to spiritual freedom and liberation. He prayed while the world of humans was asleep, he invoked God while his brothers and sisters despaired, and he remained patient and steadfast in the face of adversity and insult while so many beings turned away. Prophet Muhammad (S) was able to express love and spread it around him. His companions were gratified by his presence, tenderness, and affection and his Companions loved him with an intense, profound, and extraordinarily generous love. He gave and offered his presence, his smiles, his being, and if a slave happened to address him or wanted to take him to the other end of the city, he went, he listened, he loved.
Absolutely everything in his life was an instrument of renewal and transformation, from the slightest detail to the greatest events. Throughout his mission the Prophet sought his Companions’ advice, encouraging them to express their opinions and paying them careful attention. He would often ask questions on various subjects and give the answers only after his Companions had thought by themselves and expressed different conjectures.
Prophet Muhammad’s Mission
Prophet Muhammad (S.) carried out the mission of his Lord to His people perfectly. He saved them from ignorance and bad habits and freed their minds from their rigidity and guides them to see the vast horizons of the noble life in this world and the afterworld.
The Prophet (S) suffered all kinds of calamities and hardships from the tyrants of Quraysh, the arrogants of the Arabs, and the cruel Jews. They accused him of madness, lying, and magic. They encouraged their children and fools to throw him with earth and stones. They punished those who followed him with the severest kinds of harms and torments. Because of that punishment, Yasir and Sumayyah (Ammar’s parents) were martyred at the beginning of the mission. Then, the first Muslims were obliged to leave their homes and emigrate to Abyssinia.
The main mission of Prophet Muhammad (S), in summary, is the brotherhood and love not only among the Muslim community and Ummah, but also among other religions, too.
The final Messenger of Allah to humanity died on the 28th day of the lunar month of Safar in the 11th year of the Hijrah, circa 630CE. Prophet Muhammad (S) brought about a nation and a civilization that in a relatively very short space of time won the prime position amongst all other nations.
Imam Hasan al-Mujtaba(A.S.), Grand Son of Prophet Muhammad (S)
Imam Hasan (A.S.) was the eldest son of Imam Ali (A.S.) and Hadrat Fatimah (s). When the Holy Prophet (S) received the happy news of the birth of his grandson, he came to the house of his beloved daughter, took the newly born child in his arms, recited adhan and iqamah in his right and left ears respectively, and in compliance with Allahs command named him al-Hasan.
The Holy Imam (A.S.) devoted himself to prayers in such abundance, that all the limbs employed in prostration bore scars and impressions of his Sajdah (prostration). Most of the nights were spent on the prayer-carpet. The sense of his absorption and humiliation in prayers to Allah were in such earnest that he would shed tears profusely out of fear of Allah. While performing ablution, he trembled with the fear of Allah and his face grew pale at the time of prayers. His earnest meditation in the offering of prayers and his extreme absorption in communion with Allah would render him entirely unconscious of his environments.
Muawiyahs malice against Imam Hasan (A.S.) led him to conspire with the Imams wife Jadah, the daughter of Ashath. She was made to give the Imam some poison which affected his liver. Imam Hasan (A.S.) thus succumbed to arrogants’ fatal mischief and attained his martyrdom on 28th Safar 50 AH coincided with the demise of his grandfather, Prophet Muhammad (S). His funeral was attended by Imam Husayn (A.S.) and the members of the Hashimite family. His bier while being taken for burial to the Holy Prophets tomb was shot at with arrows by his enemies, and it had to be diverted for burial to the Jannatu I-Baq; at Medina. His tomb was demolished along with others on 8th Shawwal 1344 (21st April 1926) by the extremists when they came to power in .
Some Beautiful Maxims from Imam Hasan (A.S)
1- The people who consult for their affairs will surely be guided to the right.
2- Meanness is to avoid thanking the grace.
3- Imam al-Hasan(AS) said to one of his sons: O son, do not befriend anyone before you know his means and sources. When you try him and please to associate with him, you should then befriend him on bases of pardoning his faults and consoling him in misfortunes.
Imam Ridha (A.S.)
Name: Ali ibn moosa al-Ridha (A.S.) - the 8th Holy Imam of Islam
Title: Gharib al-Ghuraba, Moeen al-Zoafa-e-wal-Fuqara
Father: Imam Moosa al-Kadhim(A.S.) - the 7th Holy Imam of Islam
Mother: Ummul-Baneen Bibi Najma
Birth: Madina on 11th of Zi-Qadah 148 A.H. (765 A.D.)
Martyred: in Mashhad at age 55; on the last day of Safar 203 A.H. (817 A.D.)
His early life
Imam Ali Ridha (A.S.) lived in the care of his father for almost 35 years. He imbibed from his father his knowledge, morals and good manners. He was, thus, the most acknowledged scholar and the most qualified to be the leader and the guide of Muslims. He would later lead and feed the school of Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) with knowledge and religious sciences.
Every Imam made public the name of the Imam who would succeed him so that Muslims would know and follow him, ask him about what they did not know from the shariah and Islamic sciences, and receive his guidelines and teachings. Imam Musa Kadhim (A.S.), accordingly, explained the position of his son Imam Ali ar-Ridha(A.S.), emphasizing that he was the inheritor of his office, the trustee of his school and the Imam to whom Muslims should refer after him. Imam Musa al-Kadhim (A.S.) was well aware of the aggressive designs of the government in power against the Imamate and therefore, during his lifetime he declared Imam al-Ridha (A.S.) as his successor in the presence of 171 prominent religious men and called upon his sons and his family to submit to him and refer to him in all matters after him. He also left behind a written document declaring the succession of Imam ar-Ridha duly signed and endorsed by not less than 16 prominent persons. All these necessary steps were taken by the great Imam to avoid any confusion that may have arisen after his death.
Period of Imamate
The period of his imamate coincided with the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid and then his sons Amin and Mamun. After the death of his father, Mamun fell into conflict with his brother Amin which led to bloody wars and finally the assassination of Amin, after which Mamun became the caliph. Until that day the policy of the Abbasid caliphate toward the Shiites had been increasingly harsh and cruel. Every once in a while one of the supporters of Imam Ali (A.S.) (alawis) would revolt, causing blood wars and rebellions which were of great difficulty and consequence for the caliphate.
The Shiite Imams would not cooperate with those who carried out the rebellions and would not interfere with their affairs. The Shiites of that day, who comprised a considerable population, continued to consider the Imams as their religious leaders to whom obedience was obligatory and believed in them as the real caliphs of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W.). They considered the caliphate to be far from the sacred authority of their Imams, for the caliphate had come to seem more like the courts of the Persian kings and Roman emperors and was being run by a group of people more interested in worldly rule than in the strict application of religious principles. The continuation of such a situation was dangerous for the structure of the caliphate and was a serious threat to it.
He inherited the knowledge of his grandfather the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.W.), thus becoming its pioneering fountainhead that quenched the thirst of those who were thirsty for knowledge. History narrates a great deal of his scholarly stances and intellectual discourses in which he achieved victory over those who opposed the Divine Message, excelling in various branches of scholarship with which he provided the seekers of knowledge and the thinkers of the time.
Ibrahim ibn al-Abbas al-Suli is reported to have said: "I never saw al-Ridha (A.S.) unable to provide the answer to any question he received, nor have I ever seen any contemporary of his more learned than he was. Al-Mamoon used to put him to test by asking him about almost everything, and he always provided him with the answer, and his answer and example was always derived from the Holy Quran."
Rajaa ibn Abul-Dahhak, who was commissioned by al-Mamoon to escort Imam Ridha (A.S.) to his court, said: "By God! I never saw anyone more pious than neither him nor more often remembering God at all times, nor more fearful of God, the Exalted. People approached him whenever they knew he was present in their area, asking him questions regarding their faith and its aspects, and he would answer them and narrate a great deal of hadith from his father who quoted his forefathers till Ali(A.S.) who quoted the Messenger of Allah(S.A.W.W.). When I arrived at al-Mamoons court, the latter asked me about his behavior during the trip and I told him what I observed about him during the night and during the day, while riding and while halting; so, he said: `Yes, O son of al-Dahhak! This is the best man on the face of earth, the most learned, and the most pious."
Al-Hakim is quoted in Tarikh Nishapur as saying that the Imam (A.S.) used to issue religious verdicts when he was a little more than twenty years old. In Ibn Majas Sunan, in the chapter on "Summary Of Cultivating Perfection," he is described as "the master of Banu Hashim, and al-Mamoon used to hold him in high esteem and surround him with utmost respect, and he even made him his successor and secured the oath of allegiance for him."
Al-Mamoon said this once in response to Banu Hashim: "As regarding your reaction to the selection by al-Mamoon of Abul-Hassan al-Ridha (A.S.) as his successor, be reminded that al-Mamoon did not make such a selection except upon being fully aware of its implications, knowing that there is no one on the face of earth who is more distinguished, more virtuous, more pious, more ascetic, more acceptable to the elite as well as to the commoners, or more God-fearing, than He (al-Ridha, A.S.) is."
Abul-Salt al-Harawi is quoted saying: "I never saw anyone more knowledgeable than Ali ibn Mousa al-Ridha (A.S.). Every scholar who met him admitted the same. Al-Mamoon gathered once a large number of theologians, jurists and orators and He (al-Ridha, A.S.) surpassed each and every one of them in his own respective branch of knowledge, so much so that the loser admitted his loss and the superiority of the winner over him."
He is also quoted saying: "I have heard Ali ibn Mousa al-Ridha (A.S.) saying, `I used to take my place at the theological center and the number of the learned scholars at Medina was quite large, yet when a question over-taxed the mind of one of those scholars, he and the rest would point at me, and they would send me their queries, and I would answer them all."
Al-Manaqib records the following: "When people disputed regarding Abul-Hassan al-Ridha (A.S.), Muhammad ibn Isa al-Yaqtini said, `I have collected as many as eighteen thousands of his answers to questions put forth to him. A group of critics, including Abu Bakr the orator in his Tarikh and al-Thalabi in his tafsir and al-Samani in his dissertation and in al-Mutazz in his work, in addition to others, have all quoted hadith from him."
We do not need the testimony of anyone to convince us of the distinction enjoyed by Imam al-Ridha (A.S.) due to his knowledge over all others Suffices us to review the books of hadith which are filled with his statements and dictation in various arts which every individual, regardless of the loftiness of his degree of knowledge, became dwarfed upon meeting him, feeling his inferiority and the superiority.
Soon Mamun realized that he had committed an error, for there was a rapid spread of Shiism a growth in the attachment of the populace to the Imam (A.S.) and an astounding reception given to the Imam by the people and even by the army and government agents. Al-Mamun had been very scared of the growing popularity of the Imam and he had appointed him as his heir to the throne only for the fulfillment of his own most ambitious and sinister designs and getting the Imams endorsement to his tricky plans. But the Imam (A.S.) naturally refused to give his endorsement to any such plans which were against the teaching of Islam.
Mamun sought to find a remedy for this difficulty and to ensure his own survival by acting according to the old traditions of killing the Imam. Wanting to do it in a more subtle manner, he invited the Imam to dinner, and fed him poisoned grapes. The Imam died on 23rd Zi-Qadah 2O3 AH. After his death the Imam (A.S.) was buried in the city of Toos in Iran, which is now called Mashhad.